Knowledge Title: Care for children

Other Title: nursing in infants and children

Knowledge Content:

    Health and technical measures related to the prevention and treatment of diseases and the promotion of health in childhood. Including treatment operations, general care, preventive health care, feeding, mental health and corrections. Children live most of the time in the family or child care institutions, so nursing work is not only the responsibility of paediatric nurses, children's relatives, kindergarten care workers and school teachers, should master the knowledge and skills of child care, such as how to judge children's growth, development is normal, how to observe the severity of the disease, To distinguish what circumstances can be treated at home, those symptoms should be treated in the hospital, etc.

    Children are in the process of continuous growth and development, compared with adults, there are great differences, these differences are reflected in the anatomy, immunity, pathology, psychological and other aspects, there are also great differences between age groups, so children's care should take these characteristics into account.

    Anatomy of the child's bones is soft, elastic, incorrect position or long-term compression easy to deform the bones. The ligaments near the joint are looser, some joints are shallower, should avoid pulling or carrying weight to avoid injury, such as children under 4 years of age bone development is not full, ring-shaped ligament relaxation, children's upper limbs straightened, by adultpull walking, if pull force is too large can cause the tibia bone semi-dislocation. Children's skin delicate, especially in infants, epidermis is thin, easy to fall off, so the skin is vulnerable to injury and infection. Infants and young children are prone to diarrhea, hip care is a little careless, will occur hip red. Mosquito bites after the use of hand itching can cause skin damage, broken skin is susceptible to infection. So newborns have to take a bath every day. The skin is bitten by a mosquito and can be coated with 75% alcohol to stop itching and anti-inflammatory. In the case of skin infectionshould be actively treated.

    Children are in the stage of continuous growth and development, nutritional needs are relatively large compared to adults, should be provided according to age and specific circumstances of the appropriate diet. With too much carbohydrate and fat, children are “fat” and may become obese by school age. Food types and forms should be diversified, eat on time, eating environment should be quiet and comfortable, 1 year old should learn to eat, wash hands before eating, it is best to eat at the same table a few children, do not play jokes, should not be scolded children when eating. Don't let children develop the habit of picking food, children pick to eat, do not induce or reprimand, can remove food, next time to give, in order to develop good eating habits. Children sleep longer than adults, and the older they get, the less time they sleep.

    Young children are active, curious, but lack of self-protection ability, in any case need adult supervision, can not leave them alone indoors and outdoorplay. School-age children, whether at home or school, like independent activities, this period of good heart, often regardless of safety, so to safety education in the first place.

    Immune aspect Children's immune system development is immature, immune function is not good, some less pathogenic bacteria also have susceptibility. The mother's antibodies can be passed through the placenta to the fetus, and children are less likely to develop infectious diseases such as measles in the first few months of life. But after a few months these maternal antibodies gradually disappeared, increasing susceptibility to these infectious diseases. Therefore, planned immunization is required.

    Pathologically, the type, manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pediatric diseases are closely related to age. The most common anemia in infancy is nutritional anemia, often caused by improper feeding. The most common diseases are respiratory diseases such as bronchial pneumonia, which is common lying with hyperthermal convulsions due to poor nervous system development. With age, contact with the population increases, dysentery, hepatitis, mumps and other digestive tract, respiratory infections are also increasing. Infancy, there are many symptoms atypical, and can not be expressed in words, but the change of the disease is rapid, therefore, more need to carefully observe the disease. Children's condition changes many ends, treatment and care will soon turn to safety, function recovery quickly. Such as toxic dysentery children after 24 hours can be conscious, and such as children fractures healing faster than adults. Some children with type B encephalitis, although there are more serious convulsions, coma, but after six months of recovery often can restore intellectual and physical function. On the other hand, children can also die suddenly, such as sudden infant death syndrome and outbreak of meningitis.

    Psychological aspects of nursing should pay attention to children's psychological activities. Each age stage has its own typical psychological characteristics. Children, especially medical personnel, should be kind and patient. Use scolding, punishment and other means to educate children, over time will cause children to reverse the psychology, and further will also cause children's various psychological barriers.

    Infancy, the sensation develops very quickly, while the sensory development is slower, and when obvious attention and initial memory ability begin to appear, the mind is still in its infancy. The baby's sensory perception is developed by fiddling with toys or using objects, so efforts should be made to increase the various contents of infant perception (e.g. toys with sound and bright colors) to promote intellectual development. Children after 6 to 8 months will be suspicious of outsiders, so it is important to be kind when in contact with children. Early childhood, especially after the age of 2, began to walk independently, hands began to learn to use tools, began to learn to use language as a tool for the exchange of ideas. After 1 year of age children like to do what they want to do, not too obedient adults, at this time adults should not use the requested tone, so as not to develop the habit of children's resistance. After 2 to 3 years of age, children show curiosity, also show self-esteem, shyness, like to move alone or find adult companionship. At this point, adults should help children understand the world around them.

    Early school age, due to the development of hand movements, expanded the range of activities of children. They have a strong interest in the things around them, curious, dynamic and questionable, like to imitate the actions of adults, and have a strong sense of self, require solely activity, but their knowledge, experience and limited ability, and therefore often conflict with desire. Games are the best way to solve this contradiction, so games are the most basic way to cultivate children's intellectual and physical activities. Preschool children are afraid of shyness obvious, for examination should pay attention to.

    After school-age children enter school, learning to increase knowledge as the main activity content. If you can't go to school because of illness, whether in home treatment or hospitalization, you should also properly organize cultural learning and games.

    Adolescents show strong self-reliance and good intentions, but also show special interest in the opposite sex. But often very childish, action sometimes with a great deal of blindness. Adults should pay special attention and attention to guide them. Respect their opinions, but give them proper guidance and supervision, encourage their originality and self-consciousness, and properly overcome their blindness, impulsivity and dependence.

    Children's psychological development in the milk, early childhood to lay a good foundation, early school age should pay attention to psychological education, to the primary school age is a big turning point, into the school, can communicate with teachers, parents, this is a healthy mental state of adulthood plays a fundamental role.