Knowledge Title: Northern wei dynasty

Other Title: (386~534)

Knowledge Content:

    After the division of the 16 countries, the unified feudal dynasty was rebuilt in northern China. one of the Northern Dynasty dynasties. The Ministry of Tuo-Tui-tao is built by the fresh-and-humble nobles (see Wei Daowu Emperor). The city of Pingcheng (present-day Shanxi Datong) and the latter moved to Luoyang (present-day Henan). Shengshi territory is about the present Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Ningxia, Gansu and other provinces, Henan, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Anhui, Jiangsu, Qinghai, Xinjiang part of each, and part of the southern end of Mongolia. Zhai Zutou trekd edgy 16 countries when he built a generation of countries, and later for the former Qin Yujian. After the Battle of Sushui, the former Qin Dynasty decayed, Tuo Tuan in the early Year of taiyuan (386) called the king, rebuilt the country, the same year changed the country name wei, Jianyuan deng the country. Shi called The North Wei, Tuo Wei, Yuan Wei, and post-Wei. North bound sits from here on wards. Tianxing New Year (398) called the Emperor (Dao Wu Emperor), Duping City. Wei Daowu emperor in the position of the dissolution of the tribe, so that the ministry of people settled, nomadic for farming. In the first year (396), he began to build Taiwan Province, put a hundred officials. Three years of heavenly gift (406) ordered the states to set up three hedgehog history, county three taishou, county three orders (one of the three officers at all levels for the Tuo Tuan zong room, the remaining non-clan room fresh or Han). In view of the strong situation of clans in the Han region, the local grass-roots level is under the control of the patriarch. Totuo to promote agricultural farming, the development of production measures, and large-scale implementation of TuenTian, but also after the relocation of hundreds of thousands of Han people and other ethnic groups in the vicinity of Pingcheng, the mouthing of the field, to the cultivation of cattle and agricultural tools, promote national integration, enhance the military and national financial use. After Tuto's death, the son-in-law took over. He launched an attack on Liu Song in the south, seizing most of the south of the Yellow River. When Taiwu Tito was in power, the national strength was further strengthened. Successively destroyed the summer country, north Yan, north cool, unified the north, ending more than 100 years of the northern 16 countries divided situation. Taiping Zhenjun ten years (449), and beat the north of the north of the soft, so that its northern migration, solve the worries. Then south to Guastep (present-day Jiangsu six south-east), and south korea confrontation.

    The pre-Northern Wei dynasty still brought strong slavery, serious ethnic oppression, sharp social contradictions, and aroused resistance of all ethnic groups. In order to ease ethnic contradictions, and further promote the feudalization of the nobles, in order to maintain the rule, Feng Taihou and the filial piety emperor carried out a series of reforms (see filial piety reform). The first is the consolidation of governance, followed by the enactment of the three-length system, the average field system and the new rent modulation. Taihe eighteen (494) XiaoWendi excluded the opposition of the prince and the nobles, and moved to Luoyang to speed up the modernization of fresh Chinese and strengthen the rule of the Central Plains region. Subsequently, it was stipulated that the fresh humble people wear Han clothing, in Chinese, to change the Han surname, and stipulated that the people who moved to Luo Xingui after death may not be buried in Pingcheng, and Luoyang as their place of origin. Also advocatethe fresh and low-power high-door valve, and Han high door marriage. Nineteen years, and according to the family, the official, will be fresh noble class, so that the nobleand and han people further combined. Also agreed on a hundred official rank products, divided into nine products, and the first from the product. The reform of Xiaowendi accelerated the feudalization process in Northern Wei, promoted the rapid development of north Wei agriculture, handicrafts (especially steelmaking) and commerce, and Luoyang became a commercial city. With the development of production and the deepening of the Han dynasty of the fresh humble nobles, in the last years of the Ming Emperor, the political corruption, the luxury of the powerful, and the slaughtering violence; And long-term guard in the north of the six towns such as Voye will be pawns (mostly to the Tuo Tui Nobility and its members or the Central Plains strong children) because of the treatment plummeted and dissatisfied, so in Zhengguang four years (523) broke out six-town uprising, Guanyu, Hebei ethnic groups have been soldiers to respond, the Northern Wei rule is on the verge of collapse. Border town military strong take advantage of the expansion of strength, of which Erjurong strength is the most prosperous. Wutai New Year (528) Hu Tai after the poison to kill The hymn, self-regent dynasties. Er Zhurong used the name of the filial piety emperor revenge into Luoyang, The Queen Hu and the Minister more than 2000 people, LiYuanyu for the emperor, is for the filial emperor. Yong'an three years (530) Er Zhurong for the filial emperor killed, Rongdi Er Ju Zhao rate army into Luoyang, kill the filial piety emperor, Li Yuanquan for the emperor, is the festival emperor. Soon, the Ministry of Erjurong will rely on the Hebei da ethnic group for assistance, do the best of the Erju, kill the emperor, Liyuan lung emperor, is for the filial wu emperor. Yongxi three years (534) Xiaowu Emperor fled to Chang'an to rely on Yu Wentai. Gao HuanliYuan good see for the emperor, is for the filial quiet emperor, moved to the tussle (present-day Hebei Linyi), change yuan balance. Shi called Dong Wei. North Wei died. The following year Yu Wentai killed the filial piety wu emperor, Liyuan Baoju for the emperor, is for the Wendi, Du Chang'an (present-day Xi'an, Shaanxi), changed yuan. Shi called West Wei. The North is once again divided.

    During the Northern Wei dynasty, new achievements were made in science and culture. In the late years of the Northern Wei Dynasty, Jia Sixuan's “The Art of Qimin”, is the oldest and most complete agricultural book in China. Wei's end of the TaoYuan to “The Book of Water” as the outline, wrote the geographical masterpiece “Water Book Note.” In terms of literature, the folk songs of the Northern Dynasty fully reflect the characteristics of the great integration of the northern nation, the style is rigid, the language is simple, the feelings are sincere. “Yu Le Song”, “The Willow Song” and “Mulan Poem” were the representatives of the folk songs at that time. Yang Weizhi's “Loyang Jialan” is not only a geographical masterpiece, but also a literary work, but also a Buddhist writing, providing the Northern Wei Qiandu Luoyang 40 years of Buddhist historical materials. From a literary point of view, “The Book of Water” is also worthy of a beautiful travelof. North Wei sculpture art, concentrated in the cave temple at that time. It inherits the Chinese art tradition since the Qin and Han Dynasties and is also influenced by foreign art, especially in ancient India. Cliff grottoes are widely distributed, from the west to present-day Gansu, east to present Liaoning, the well-known to save the famous Datong Yungang Grotto, Henan Luoyang Longmen Grotto, Gansu Dunhuang Grotto, as well as Gansu Tianshui's Maijimountain Grotto, Yongjing's Jingling Temple Grotto, Shanxi Taiyuan's Tianlongshan WanBuddha Cave, Henan Gongyi Grotto and so on. In these grotto temples, there are tens of thousands of Buddha statues created by ancient artisans, representing the highest level of Chinese sculpture art at that time, is the world's famous art treasure trove.