Knowledge Title: Price Economics

Other Title: price economics

Knowledge Content:

    A discipline to study the formation of commodity prices and the regularity of their movements.

    The development of price theory as early as the 7th century BC, China recorded the management of the economic thought of the “tube” book, there is a discussion on the change of market price: “the collection is heavy, the hair is light”, “the people are lighter, the people are less than”; Gold is heavy and light,” “the valley is heavy and everything is light, the valley is light and everything is heavy”, “the currency is heavy and everything is light, the coin is light and everything is heavy”. In the 6th century B.C., Fan Wei put forward the “drought boat, water is a car”, advocated that in the society is not in urgent need of a certain commodity pre-storage, waiting for the time to sell at a high price, indicating that Fan Wei has understood the relationship between supply and demand and price, the use of price changes for profit. In the 5th century B.C., Li said, advocating that the government buy at low grain prices, high grain prices when selling, swallow inggling grain to stabilize grain prices and adjust supply and demand. Although the ancient Chinese thinkers have made exploration and research on the theory of price, because China has been stagnant in feudal society for a long time, the commodity economy is underdeveloped, and the price theory has been limited to the discussion of how the government can stabilize the price of flatness and parity theory (see the theory of loss and equalization).

    In the period of feudal society in the West, the theory of price was not developed. With the development of capitalist economy, commodity relations seep into every corner of social and economic life, and the value theory of price formation has become an important part of economics, which is usually distinguished by different schools of value. Classical economists W. Distribution, A. Smith, D. Ricardo, etc. distinguish the value of use from exchange value, exchange value and value, and lay the foundation for labor value theory; The various bourgeois vulgar economics (see bourgeois economics) are opposed to the theory of labour value on the theory of production costs (see J.-B. Say) and the theory of marginal utility (see marginal utility school). At the same time, for the regularity of price movement, for the commodity supply and demand and commodity price relationship, for the conditions of perfect competition and imperfect competition, the different influence of supply and demand on price, but also based on different value theory and have different price theory. The price theory of modern Western China has been developing gradually towards measurement.

    Research Object By studying and exploring the price theory in the planned commodity economy, China has gradually established price economics. It is a young and developing subject. The research objects of price economics include: (1) the law of price formation. Value is the basis of price, and price is the monetary expression of value. Price economics should theoretically clarify the objective basis of price formation and its historical evolution. (2) The law of price movement. Although the value of commodities is created in the production process, but through exchange in the process of circulation, it will inevitably bear the constraints of market supply and demand factors, so commodity prices are difficult to be completely consistent with the value, there will always be different degrees of deviation. It is therefore necessary to understand the contradiction between value decision and value realization, and to clarify the regularity of the movement in which price and value are consistent and deviated from each other in exchange. 3 Price and difference. In the real economic life, various commodity prices have a series of convergence relationship series between each other, both vertical lying between the difference between the price and the horizontal relationship of the price. Price movements will not only change in levels, but also cause ripple effects. To understand this relationship, it is necessary to study the reasonable price system suitable for the planned commodity economy. (4) Use price leverage. The purpose of exploring price movement is to grasp the regularity of price movement, in order to exert the leverage of price and serve the production and operation, so that the research object of price economics is unified with the research purpose.

    The main composition of the discipline is: (1) comprehensive price science. A discipline that specializes in exploring the common problems of price theory, such as the principle of price science. (2) Departmental price science. A study of the price of various sectors of the national economy and industries. It can also be divided into several levels, according to the large economic sector can be divided into industrial price science, agricultural product price science, commercial price science, foreign trade price science, construction product price science, transportation price science, etc. , if the sector is divided more finely, but also can study more specialized price issues, such as industrial price science can be divided into extractive sector product price science , processing industrial product price science, and further divided into energy prices, mineral product prices, metallurgical product prices, mechanical product prices, textile pricing, and so on. (3) History Price. From the perspective of historical development, the subject of price in various historical periods is discussed. It includes two categories: one is considered from the point of view of price system, such as the price history of the People's Republic of China, the history of modern Chinese prices, the history of modern Chinese prices, etc., and the other is studied from the perspective of theoretical development, such as the history of Chinese price theory and the history of foreign price theory. (4) Tool price science. The study of price economics is permeated into some instrumental disciplines, such as price statistics. (5) Compare price science. The subjects of comparative study of price theory and practice in various countries, such as foreign price management system, or then divided into the price management system of eastern European countries of the Soviet Union and the price management system in Western countries.

    Research Methods Research Price Economics should be guided by dialectical materialism and historical materialism, using the combination of theory and practice, macro-analysis with micro-analysis, static analysis with dynamic analysis, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Theory and practice can prevent blindness, from objective reality, coordinate the economic relations reflected by price, and constantly explore new problems in price movement, macro-analysis and micro-analysis can prevent one-sidedness, comprehensive analysis and overall consideration, static analysis and dynamic analysis combined to prevent fragmentation To grasp the origin and history of price movement systematically and developing systematically, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis can prevent generalization and improve the depth and precision of the law of price movement.