Economic accountability in the construction industry

Knowledge Title: Economic accountability in the construction industry Other Title: economic responsibility system in building industry Knowledge Content:  In economic life, the socialist construction industry correctly deals with the relationship between the state, the collective and the individual, taking the obligation and responsibility as the central content, and the production and management system with the main form of contracting, with the aim of improving economic efficiency. The basic principles of this system are: the combination of responsibility, authority and interests, the unity of national, collective and personal interests, and the link between the income of workers’ labor and the results of labor.  The economic responsibility system of construction industry mainly includes the economic responsibility between the state and the department, the enterprise, between the enterprise, the enterprise and the construction unit, and the economic responsibility of the enterprise.……

Read more

Labour discipline

Knowledge Title: Labour discipline Other Title: labour discipline Knowledge Content:  Under the socialist system, workers must abide by the rules in their common labor. All collective production and labor, all workers are required to abide by certain rules and regulations, obey the command, on time to complete their tasks.  The nature and content of labor discipline The nature of labor discipline varies according to the social system. This difference is determined by the dominant productive relations of various societies, first and foremost by the form of ownership of means of production. Under all forms of exploitation, labor discipline embodies the will and interests of the exploiting class and is a means by which the exploiting class uses forced labour ers to create material wealth for them. In slave and feudal societies, labor discipline was maintained by sticks and whips.……

Read more

Accountant

Knowledge Title: Accountant Other Title: accountant Knowledge Content:  With a certain level of accounting professional, after assessment to obtain a certificate, can accept the parties entrusted to undertake the relevant audit, accounting, consulting, taxation and other aspects of the business accounting personnel. Such as china's certified public accountants (certified public accountants), the United Kingdom's chartered accountants (chartered accountants), Japan's GAAP, etc. In Western countries, accountants, like lawyers, physicians and engineers, are freelancers. In China, accountants are also one of the technical titles of accounting cadres.  China's accounting system, founded in 1918 during the Republic of China. At that time, the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce of the Beiyang Government promulgated the Provisional Charter of Accountants, which issued certificates to qualified accountants. In 1927, the Ministry of Finance of the Kuomintang Government promulgated the Charter of The Registration of Accountants; In 1945 and 1946, the Accounts Act and the Measures for the Inspection of Accountants were promulgated, which provided for the qualification of accountants, the opening and scope of business of accounting firms, the institute of accountants, and the disciplinary sanctions of accountants.……

Read more

Price Economics

Knowledge Title: Price Economics Other Title: price economics Knowledge Content:  A discipline to study the formation of commodity prices and the regularity of their movements.  The development of price theory as early as the 7th century BC, China recorded the management of the economic thought of the “tube” book, there is a discussion on the change of market price: “the collection is heavy, the hair is light”, “the people are lighter, the people are less than”; Gold is heavy and light,” “the valley is heavy and everything is light, the valley is light and everything is heavy”, “the currency is heavy and everything is light, the coin is light and everything is heavy”. In the 6th century B.C., Fan Wei put forward the “drought boat, water is a car”, advocated that in the society is not in urgent need of a certain commodity pre-storage, waiting for the time to sell at a high price, indicating that Fan Wei has understood the relationship between supply and demand and price, the use of price changes for profit.……

Read more

Modern Foreign Banks in China

Knowledge Title: Modern Foreign Banks in China Other Title: foreign banks in modern China Knowledge Content:  A bank belonging to a foreign capital in China's semi-colonial and semi-feudal society.  The establishment of foreign banks in China, before the Opium War in 1840, began to brew. In the mid-1940s, the first foreign bank on Chinese soil, the British Capital-run Liru Bank, appeared on Chinese soil. Until 1865, all foreign banks in China were not in China. After the establishment of HSBC in 1865, for the first time, a foreign bank with a head office in China was found to be dedicated to China's trade and finance. Outside the UK, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, the United States and the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries have set up banks in China. In the mid-1930s, the total number of foreign banks in the country was more than 50.……

Read more

Western Party Association System

Knowledge Title: Western Party Association System Other Title: guild system in Medieval Western Europe Knowledge Content:  The organization of the association in the cities of the feudal society of Europe. A feudal group established by a craftsman or businessman in the same industry to protect the interests of the industry. The bank will have a strict and detailed charter, to ensure that the rights and obligations of members equal, the implementation of a monopoly. The general term is a meeting, mainly referred to as a craft industry association.  The congresses in Western Europe originated during the urban commune uprising of the 12th to the 13th centuries. In the 13th century, there were about 100 marches in Paris, and by the middle of the 14th century the number of meetings had increased to about 350. At that time, the most common and developed western European council was in some medium-sized cities with a population of more than 10,000, while in small cities with a population of only 12,000, and in large cities with developed foreign trade, the associationwashes were not common.……

Read more

Bonds

Knowledge Title: Bonds Other Title: public debt Knowledge Content:  Debt borrowed by central and local governments. A country's debt is called a national bond or national debt. is national credit.  The government has been borrowing debt for a long time. During the eastern weekend of China, Zhou Weiwang built up a debt platform to avoid the debt of merchants. In medieval Europe, royal borrowing was not uncommon. But the borrowing at that time was only the monarch's private credit, which was different from modern public debt.  Modern public debt is the product of the developed credit system and is based on the credit of the country. With the development of capitalist economy, a large amount of idle funds in society through the credit system and financial markets to adjust, this time there is a large number of the possibility of raising public debt; There is also a large number of public debt collection needs, which makes the national credit continue to develop.……

Read more

Capitalist Cyclical Economic Crisis (19th Century)

Knowledge Title: Capitalist Cyclical Economic Crisis (19th Century) Other Title: cyclical crisis of capitalist economy in 19th century Knowledge Content:  Since the 1820s, the cyclical economic crisis in capitalist countries has been under going on on on the basis of the development of capitalist mode of production to a considerable extent, and on the basis of overproduction. Since capitalism is uneven in each country, the economic crisis has not been in the same place in the world.  The first British economic crisis The development of the capitalist machine industry is an important prerequisite for the cyclical economic crisis. Therefore, the earliest industrial revolution in Britain, but also the earliest economic crisis. Britain's first cyclical economic crisis occurred in 1825, which was the first in the history of capitalism.  The economic crisis of 1825 Britain before 1825, especially in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, although accompanied by the development of capitalism, there have been many overproduction phenomenon, but because the development of large-scale machine production at that time is not sufficient, this phenomenon is often confined to a few industrial sectors and regions.……

Read more

Central City

Knowledge Title: Central City Other Title: central city Knowledge Content:  A city that plays an important role in a country's urban system or in urban clusters and plays an economic center.  The central city is a new concept with the development of modern cities, especially the formation of urban groups or large city circles. After entering the 20th century, the development of urban economy spread to the surrounding countryside (not only industrial activities, but also residential activities), the city gradually expanded outward. The result has been to transform the suburbs of the old cities into areas with strong social and economic ties to urban centres. At the same time, some small and medium-sized cities around large cities have strengthened their economic ties with large cities, forming urban areas or large urban circles beyond the scope of a city. In an urban area or large city circle, an old or large city as a center is called a core city or central city.……

Read more

Russia's pre-World War I monopoly

Knowledge Title: Russia's pre-World War I monopoly Other Title: monopolies in Russia before the First World War Knowledge Content:  Refers to the monopoly organization formed and developed by Russia in the transition to imperialism before 1917, distributed in the fields of coal mining, metallurgy, metalworking and machine-making, petroleum, light industry, shipping and banking.  In the 1870s, a small number of early cartels emerged in Russia, such as the Russian insurance company alliance, the cartel agreement between sugar producers, and so on. In the 1980s and 1990s, cartels and syndicates were established in a number of production sectors, such as the Rail Factory Master Alliance (1882), the Bridge Factory Alliance (1887), and the Vehicle Factory Alliance (1899), but were not stable, and some broke up only a few years later. In the early 20th century and before the First World War, monopolies flourished, with the emergence of large cartels, syndicates and trusts that monopolized the main sectors, and a few large bank monopolies in Peterborough.……

Read more