Knowledge Title: Museum of Nature

Other Title: Museum of natural history

Knowledge Content:

    Collection, production and display of historic specimens of astronomy, geology, plants, animals, paleontology and humans for scientific research and cultural education. Also known as the Natural History Museum.

    A brief history Of the prototype of the Modern Museum of Nature, dating back to the 17th century in Europe. Initially for a few private collectors or palace collections, it was gradually opened to the public, becoming a place for publicity, popularization of scientific and cultural knowledge, and gradually developed into a modern museum form. The Ahsimolin Museum in Oxford, England, founded in 1683, may be the earliest museum ever created. In 1716, Russia established the Museum of Mineralogy in St. Petersburg. In 1753, the British Museum of Nature was established in London. In 1794, paris established the French National Museum of Nature. Subsequent lying were the first museums in the world, such as the American Museum of Nature in New York, the Royal Belgian Museum of Natural Science in Brussels, the Swedish National Museum of Nature in Stockholm, and the National Museum of Science in Tokyo. Development has been particularly rapid since the 1950s, with more than 30,000 natural museums of various types, according to incomplete statistics.

    China's earliest natural museum, is the French Catholic missionaries in 1868 in Shanghai Xujiahui founded the Natural History Museum (formerly known as Xujiahui Museum), the collection of animal specimens mainly. In 1905, Zhang Wei, a member of the Shanghai Self-Improvement Society, founded the Nantong Museum (Ministry of Nature) in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, the first natural museum built by China. Before the Anti-Japanese War, there were more than 200 museums of all kinds in China, about 30 of which belonged to the nature of natural museums. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the cause of museums has developed rapidly, by 1986, the total number of museums in the country has nearly 900, of which more than 400 belong to the nature of natural museums. Many big cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, have large-scale “natural museums” or “natural departments” within museums. In addition, a number of specialized natural science museums have been built, such as the “Dinosaur Museum” in Zigong, Sichuan Province, and the geological and mineral museums in the provinces.

    Tasks Collecting and preserving specimens, conducting scientific research and carrying out publicity and education are the three basic tasks of the Modern Nature Museum. These three complement each other and should not be abandoned. The need for scientific research and publicity and education must be safeguarded in order to continuously collect specimens to enrich the collection. Famous museums such as the British Museum and the American Museum of Nature are rich in collections, but large-scale natural resource surveys and specimen collection activities are often organized, and some museums encourage and absorb visitors (especially young students) in the collection and modeling of specimens. Museums must have certain scientific researchers to do research. Some famous museums tend to bring together many famous scholars from contemporary countries, making them research centers and training specialized personnel in many branches of biology and geosciences. In terms of displays, the early stages were only sporadic displays of collectibles with labels or instructions; The display also tries to make use of the achievements of modern technology (such as sound, image, light, electricity and other equipment), so that the display content image vivid, attract audience. In addition to its more fixed basic displays, the Museum of Nature regularly organizes temporary special exhibitions to disseminate the latest scientific information. Some museums often organize educational activities such as meaningful lectures and demonstrations and consultations by relevant experts on audiences of different ages, educational levels and interests. In addition, a number of museums have organized tours and have institutions dedicated to the dissemination of scientific knowledge to persons with disabilities. In recent years, many new disciplines in biology and geosciences have developed rapidly, and the basic research work such as classical system classification and district investigation has gradually shifted from university to natural museum. The museum has become an off-campus classroom and laboratory for the school. Many large, middle and primary schools go to museums to take classes, make full use of the conditions of museums, improve the quality of teaching, and museums are the ideal place for teachers to further their studies. Museums are also playing an increasingly important role in education.