Knowledge Title: Tallow

Other Title: Sapium sebiferum

Knowledge Content:

    Euphorbiaceae is a deciduous tree. Important industrial wood-based oil tree species. Also known as mule, wood. There are about 120 species of eucalyptus, mainly tropical and subtropical. There are 10 species in China, and they have a history of more than 1400 years of cultivation and utilization. In the 6th century, the North and South Dynasties jia Sixuan was recorded in “The Art of Qimin”. At the beginning of the 17th century, Xu Guangqi elaborated on the utilization and cultivation management techniques of eucalyptus in the Book of Agriculture and Politics.

    Morphological Features The crown of the tree is near the sphere. small twigs. Leaf near diamond or diamond-shaped egg shape, leaf handle top with 2 glands. Flower monosexual, female and male with the same strain, male flowers 3 flowers form a small umbrella flower sequence, and then gathered into a saucy-shaped compound flower sequence, female flowers usually 5 to 15, born in the lower part of the flower sequence. The fruit is nearly flat and dark brown when cooked. The seeds are black, white waxed out, fixed on the central axis, and winter-dying (see photo).

Variety and distribution, by flowering habit and fruit sequence characteristics, are divided into two variants, sebiferum var.conferticarpum and chicken claw (S.sebiferum var var.laxcarpum). The vines only have a flower sequence, open a flower once, the female male with the same spike, the lower part for the female flower, the upper part for the male flower. The fruit is arranged tightly on the fruit stalks, shaped like grapes. The chicken claw has two kinds of flower sequence, open two flowers, the first time opened for the male flower sequence, when the first flower order is about to wither, and then in a flower sequence base directly pullout several two flower sequences, the base of the raw female flowers, the upper part of the raw male flowers, because in this two flower sequence results, the formation of multi-splow fruit sequence, like a chicken claw. But there are also a few single plants with both grape and chicken claw, the flowering habits. Because of the long history of eucalyptus cultivation, wide cultivation area, as well as the pollination of exotic flowers and other reasons, formed a lot of farm varieties, such as long-spike grape, big grain chicken claw, small grain chicken claw, shou peach, copper hammer, large grain grape, small grain grape, hook and so on. In the 1970s, Zhejiang Province selected four excellent asexual varieties: water-sharing grape vine 1, pick no. 1, pick pick no. 2 and copper hammer no. 11. With high yield, rapid growth, early reality, large granules, waxy thick, high oil output rate advantages.

    Umei is distributed in 18 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) south of the Yellow River basin of China, with the cultivation center in the Yangtze River basin and the southern provinces. Vertical distribution in the Yangtze River basin of Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei, Anhui and other provinces up to 600 to 800 meters above sea level, in Yunnan up to 1850 meters. The United States, India, Japan also have a small amount of cultivation.

    Biological characteristics Ofucis is suitable for high temperature, humidity, short sunshine ecological conditions, the average annual temperature in the central region between 16 to 19 degrees C, the annual rainfall between 1000 to 1500 mm. Soil is good for alluvial soil on both sides of rivers, rivers and lakes, followed by deep and ripe red soil and purple soil. The adaptability to soil acidity and alkalinity is strong (pH5.5 to 8), and the growth results are normal. Planted next to water, flooded continuously for 1 month without abnormal performance. In addition, eucalyptus has a strong resistance to the toxic gas hydrogen fluoride.

    Cultivation technique Select 15 to 40 years of real tree as the seed mother tree. Seeds after waxtreatment, in March, the seeding of seedlings, per acre sowing amount of about 7 kg. A year up to about 1 meter, root diameter 0.7 to 1.2 cm can be used as birch. Grafting is easy to live, 2 to April with the best cut-and-abdominal method, easy to operate, do not tie, high efficiency, fast growth, survival rate of up to 90%. In addition to branching, can also be used in the summer, autumn buds. The establishment of good seed nursery, a large number of breeding grafting seedlings afforestation, is to rapidly improve the large area of the equilibrium high yield of eucalyptus, to achieve the cultivation of varieties of the basic measures.

    The forest ingress is generally planted about 30 plants per acre, and the plant line distance is 4 to 6 meters. The field edge, the corner of the sporadic tree planting 8 to 10 meters. Where in the low hills and river beaches of the forest, the cultivation of eucalyptus forests, generally grow crops. The correct harvesting method is a short cut result branch, that is, the fruit spike along with the small fruit branch cut off, only leave the base of the fruit branch a section, as the result of next year's mother branch, so that both the harvest of the pickaxe, but also the role of pruning. The result of the grape vines is 6 to 8.5 mm thick, the length of 10 to 18 cm, the chicken claw to the thickness of 6 to 9.5 mm, length 8 to 15 cm is appropriate. When harvesting, the intensity of cutting branches should master the principle of “weak branches and strong shears, strong branches and weak shears, young trees, strong trees, old trees, weak trees strong shears”.

    The eucalyptus yellow venom is the most important leaf-eating pest of eucalyptus, and other pests include oil-tea-bar, oil-based and eucalyptus.

    Use The outer layer of eucalyptus seeds is coated with wax skin (skin oil) and the seeds of the nut can be squeezed with eucalyptus oil (oil). The former is solid oil and the latter is liquid oil, which is an important raw material for chemical products. Each 100 kg of seeds can be squeezed sebum (sebum) 24 to 26 kg, 16 to 17 kg of eucalyptus oil. At room temperature, heave is a white odorless waxy solid, commonly used in the manufacture of soap, wax paper, skin cream, metal rub, solid alcohol, etc. , but also the manufacture of stearic acid high-quality raw materials. The lipid contains about 14% glycerin, which is the raw material for the production of epoxy resin and nitroglycerin. Oil is a dry oil, containing fatty acids mainly for flaxole oleic acid and sub-flaxine oleic acid, is an important raw material for paint, ink. The lipid is rich in special structure Of P-O-P triglycerides, which is similar in nature to natural cocoa butter and can be used to make Cocoa Butter CBE, which can be used to make chocolate and high-grade sweets, cakes, etc. The pancakes are used as feed and fuel and are also high-quality organic fertilizers. Fruit shells and sub-shells can be made of acetal and activated carbon. The wood is textured, tough and durable, and can be used for furniture, farm tools and carvings. Flowers are a good source of honey. The eucalyptus is resistant to moisture, strong resistance to wind, can resist air pollution, the tree is beautiful, autumn red leaves, is the road tree, garden greening and embankment afforestation of the fine tree species.